It’s well known that the Capitol Centre at Walton-le-Dale was built over a Roman industrial site (which, if it had been preserved, might have been a major place for heritage and tourism) on the Walton Flats between the Ribble and Darwen beside the Roman road between Wigan and Lancaster. Less has been said about the significance of the Mesolithic material found beneath the Roman layers.
In Prehistoric Lancashire David Barrowclough records: ‘The material is local pebble, Pendleside chert and white Yorkshire flint… There were a total of 160 pieces with the flint to chert proportion in an approximately 2:1 ratio. Included in the assemblage were 2 cores, 22 blades, 7 knives, 2 scrapers and a scalene point indicative of the later Mesolithic period. The general characteristics of the Mesolithic assemblage suggest a blade, rather than a flint industry, whilst the inclusion of larger, broader blades reflects a combination of types of blade industry, possibly of different phases of occupation.’
The evidence suggests the ‘larger, broader blades’ have their origins in the ‘broad blade industry’ of the Early Mesolithic (10,000 – 7,000BC) and that the rest of the assemblage, particularly the ‘scalene point’, originate in the ‘narrow blade industry’ with its ‘smaller geometric Mesolithic forms’ in the Late Mesolithic (7,000 – 4,000BC). Thus the site may have been used by the earliest people of present-day Walton-le-Dale on-and-off for thousands of years through to the Roman period.
Most Mesolithic tools are made from flint or chert. Chert is a hard, fine-grained rock consisting of very small ‘microcrystalline’ crystals of quartz. Flint is a hard rock composed of nearly pure chert which occurs only in nodules of chalk and limestone and is of a higher quality to chert. It is renowned for chipping into sharp-edged pieces which can be utilised to make cutting instruments.
It seems likely the ‘local pebbles’ came from the Ribble. The Pendleside chert would have originated from the Pendleside Limestone Formation. This was lain down during the Lower Carboniferous around 350 million years ago. It occurs throughout the Craven Basin between Lancaster, Skipton, and Preston. Pendleside limestone can be seen near the side of Pendle Hill in the gully north-east of Burst Clough. As yet I have been unable to find out anything about Yorkshire white flint.
As there is no evidence for the mining or quarrying of either flint or chert in the Mesolithic period in this area it might be assumed that most of the material was found in river beds or loose where sedimentary rocks such as chalk and limestone form natural outcrops within the landscape. It seems indubitable that, when discovered, these stones were recognised as special due to their unique qualities.
Hominids have been making and using stone tools for at least 2.6 million years. The earliest evidence in Britain (and in North West Europe) is a hand-axe found on the beach near Happisburgh, Norfolk, which is 700,000 years old. Flint tools were discovered at Boxgrove, Sussex, dating to 500,000 years ago.
The broader Mesolithic blades at Walton-le-dale would have been created by striking a pebble of flint or chert with a harder hammerstone (these are usually ovoid in shape and made of sandstone, limestone, or quartzite). A core is what is left over after the flakes, which form the blades, have been removed. The narrower blades and points would have been made by striking the pebble with a ‘soft hammer’ made of deer antler and the finest most precise work on the smaller pieces done with antler tine.
It seems strange to us now that these blades were quite literally the ‘cutting edge’ technology of the hunter-gatherers of the Mesolithic, allowing them to hunt, skin, and eat their prey. It is of interest that no axes were found at this site showing that it was used predominately to make hunting equipment.
Use of this site in the early Bronze Age is evidenced by a pit containing 31 fragments of pottery belonging to the same vessel, likely a funeral urn, along with ‘a barbed and tanged arrowhead south of the site and of a scale-flaked knife to the north’. The Romans continued to use it for pottery and evidence of forges suggests that blade-making continued. I will be covering these periods in later posts.
It is notable that ‘Walton-le-dale’ was known as ‘Waletune’ in the Doomsday Book. This comes from wahl – Anglo-Saxon for ‘foreigners’ which also gives us ‘Wales’ – and tun ‘settlement’. This is suggestive that there was a strong Brythonic presence during the Anglo-Saxon and perhaps the Norman conquests. I wonder whether those Britons continued to tell the stories of their ancient ancestors and pass on ways of blade-making here where less needful and superficial industries bloom?
*Please note the assemblage pictured here is of ‘seventeen Mesolithic – Neolithic blades’ from Wikipedia. As yet I’m unsure of the location of the Walton-le-Dale Mesolithic finds as they’re not on display in the Harris or South Ribble Museums. I’m currently trying to contact the curators to find out more.
Anon, ‘Flint Factsheet’, Tees Archaeology, http://www.teesarchaeology.com/projects/Mesolithic/documents/Flint_Factsheets.pdf (accessed 20/12/2019)
Anon, ‘Pendleside Limestone Formation, British Geological Survey, https://www.bgs.ac.uk/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?pub=PDL (accessed 20/12/2019)
A. Harrison, ‘Field Guide to the Geology and Quaternary History of Pendle Hill), Lancashire Geologists, (2015) http://www.lancashire-geologists.co.uk/ESW/Files/Pendle_Hill_(final_-_full_size).pdf (accessed 20/12/2019)
Collie Mudie, ‘The Happisburgh Hand Axe – The oldest handaxe in north-west Europe’, Museum Crush, (2017) https://museumcrush.org/the-happisburgh-hand-axe-the-oldest-hand-axe-in-north-west-europe/ (accessed 20/12/2019)
David Barrowclough, Prehistoric Lancashire, (The History Press, 2008)