The Awenydd Identity and Cultural Appropriation


I’m writing this essay because, over the past few months, I have noticed a number of people speaking either of their reluctance to identify as awenyddion due to fears of cultural appropriation or more generally voicing their concerns about English and American Pagans appropriating the term.

I first came across the term awenydd ‘person inspired’ in Natural Druidry by Kristoffer Hughes. In its lightning-like connection to the awen ‘poetic inspiration’ and used as a descriptor of one who quests and gives voice to this divine breath in poetry I intuited it was the word I’d been searching for to describe my spiritual path (I had formerly identified as a bard). This was confirmed by my patron god, Gwyn ap Nudd, on the Winter Solstice in 2013. Since then I have served Gwyn as an awenydd by giving voice to his myths and those of other Brythonic deities, the lore of the land, and the ancestors. With Greg Hill I co-founded the Awen ac Awenydd website and, with Lia Hunter, we have been working on compiling an anthology featuring the voices of other modern awenyddion.

So it came as a bit of a shock that my adoption of the awenydd identity might be seen as cultural appropriation. And that, much worse, I might have unwittingly influenced the choice of others to appropriate the term. Over the past few weeks I have led discussions on the topic on the Awen ac Awenydd Facebook page and discussed it with Greg by email and would like to share some conclusions.

The Awenydd Identity

Firstly I will provide an introduction to the awenydd identity. The earliest use of the term awen is found in Nennius’ History of the Britons (828) where he refers to Talhearn ‘Tad Awen’ ‘Father of Inspiration’, chief of the famous bards Aneirin, Taliesin, and Cian. This may be our first reference to an awenydd.

Here it is important to note that bardism has its roots in an older Brythonic tradition. From the Iron Age, throughout the Roman-British period, until the Anglo-Saxon invasions all of present-day England, Wales, and southern Scotland were part of a shared Brythonic culture. Taliesin and Aneirin composed poems about the battles between the Brythonic rulers and the Anglo-Saxons which gave rise to the fall of Yr Hen Ogledd ‘The Old North’. As the invaders pushed the Brythonic peoples west they took their stories and traditions with them, leading to them being maintained in Wales.

In his Description of Wales (1194) Gerald of Wales speaks of awenyddion ‘people inspired’ who ‘when consulted upon any doubtful event, they roar out violently, are rendered beside themselves, and become, as it were, possessed by a spirit.’ Their answers are described as ‘nugatory’, ‘incoherent’, and ‘ornamented’ yet can be explained the ‘turn of a word’. These are hallmarks of both poetic and prophetic language. Their inspiration comes from states of ecstasy and dreams. The awenydd is depicted as a solitary spirit-worker and soothsayer.

In medieval Welsh poetry awen originates from the cauldron of Ceridwen and/or from God. It is seen to flow from Annwn, ‘the Deep’ or ‘the Otherworld’, where the cauldron is guarded by Pen Annwn. In The Story of Taliesin receiving (or in some versions stealing!) awen from the cauldron, thereby becoming an awenydd, is the source of Taliesin’s omniscience and mastery of the bardic arts.

The term awenydd is consistently used as a synonym for an inspired poet. For example the fourteenth century poet Dafydd ap Gwilym describes himself as an ‘awenydd gwyrdd’ ‘green poet’. Lewis Glyn Cothi, in the fifteenth century, refers to Grufydd ab Rhys and his kinsmen as ‘awenyddion’.

In a letter to his cousin (1694) the Welsh poet Henry Vaughan speaks of an orphaned shepherd receiving awen when the ‘hawk upon the fist’ of ‘a beautiful young man with a garland of green leaves upon his head… a quiver of arrows att his back’ flies into his mouth and awakes in him ‘fear’, ‘consternation’ and ‘the gift of poetrie’. This of interest because it is suggestive of awen being gifted by a numinous figure – perhaps Maponos/Mabon, a god of youth, hunting, and music/poetry.

During the Druidic revival, awenyddion are conceived radically differently. In hisBarddas (written in the late 18th century but published in 1862), Iolo Morganwg speaks of Awenyddion as ‘Aspirants’ who have ‘no privileges’ within the Gorsedd of the Bards of the Island of Britain until they have completed three years of discipleship. Only then may they graduate from the lowly status of Awenydd to ‘Primitive Bard Positive’. Iolo states that Awen comes ‘from God’.

Following Iolo, in his introduction to the heroic elegies of Llywarch Hen (1792) William Pughe refers to Awenyddion as ‘disciples’ who are examined for their ‘understanding, affections, morals, and principles’, undergo ‘severe trials’, and must ‘learn such verbs and adages as contained the maxims of the institution, and to compose others himself, on any relative subject, doctrinal or moral’ to gain the the degree of ‘Bardd Braint’ a ‘Bard of Privilege’.

Here we find the awenydd as the lowest position within a highly moralistic order based on Christian concepts. We are miles away from the shepherd lad being gifted with inspiration by an unnamed god.

The term awenydd is defined today in The Dictionary of the Welsh Language as an ‘(inspired) poet; bardic pupil; inspired person, genius’. In modern Wales it is used to refer to poets who write in strict metre.

Like many terms some parts of the meaning of awenydd have changed through the centuries, but its essence remains the same. It consistently refers to somebody who receives awen from the divine (be it the Brythonic gods and spirits or the Christian God) and expresses it in well crafted poetry.

Last year, on the basis of these two underlying currents, at Awen ac Awenydd we created our own definition of the awenydd identity – ‘an awenydd is a spirit-worker and inspired poet in the Brythonic tradition’.

Cultural Appropriation

Awen ac Awenydd is a community of self-identified awenyddion. Some of us, such as Greg, live in Wales and are Welsh speakers. Others, such as myself, live in other parts of the UK, or in America, and are learning Welsh. For us the question has risen of whether we are appropriating the awenydd identity.

To answer this question we need to understand the concept of cultural appropriation. This came into use in the 1980s as part of the discourse critiquing Western expansionism and colonialism. It entered the Oxford Dictionaries in 2017 where it is defined as ‘the unacknowledged or inappropriate adoption of the customs, practices, ideas, etc. of one people or society by members of another and typically more dominant people or society.’

Cultural appropriation involves a dominant culture taking elements from a minority culture and using them to make a profit, for fun, or for fashion, without giving anything back. This is often done without knowledge of or sensitivity to their meaning within the culture they are taken from and is a form of colonialism. This differs from cultural exchange in which the interchange is mutually beneficial.

Examples of cultural appropriation include the adoption of ‘exotic’ aspects of Indian culture following the economic exploitation of the Indian subcontinent by the British Empire, the claiming of the religious term ‘Shaman’ outside the indigenous religion of Siberia and its neighbouring peoples, and the use of ‘Sweat Lodges’ from the Amerindian tradition against the wishes of the Lakota elders (who suggest casually employing their techniques may be harmful to the participants).

Unfortunately, since the term has become fashionable, there have been a proliferation of more superficial examples such as an eighteen-year-old girl wearing a cheongsam to her high school prom and the row over Jamie Oliver’s ‘punchy jerk rice’.

Am I Appropriating?

So the question arises of whether English and American Pagans (members of dominant cultures) are appropriating the term awenydd from the Welsh (a minority culture) thus engaging in an act of colonialism.

First off I’d like to say that this question is based on the presuppositions that there is an absolute distinction between England and Wales and that Wales has been colonised by the English. There is a strong argument for the English colonisation of Wales over the last thousand years. There are numerous examples of military (Anglo-Norman castles), economic (mines, reservoirs), religious (the English Prayer Book), and linguistic (the Welsh Not) oppression. However, Wales along with England and Scotland, has benefited from oppressing other countries as part of the British Empire. More positively there are numerous examples of mutually beneficial cultural exchange between Wales and England (such as the Anglo-Welsh poetry of Henry Vaughan, David Jones, and Dylan Thomas).

These issues are complex, thorny, put our presuppositions into question, and do not take into consideration that for many centuries beforehand present-day England, Wales, and southern Scotland were part of a Brythonic culture which remains alive within the land and our shared heritage.

During our conversations Greg suggested, as a general condition, that an English or American Pagan would be appropriating the awenydd identity if they were doing so without knowledge of the Welsh culture and its Brythonic roots and were profiting in some way without giving anything back. For example an English Pagan selling courses on becoming an awenydd without knowing the background of the Welsh myths and mispronouncing the names would be appropriating.

Since I discovered that the stories of the Brythonic deities have been preserved in the Welsh myths I have been studying them and sharing them online and through performances in my local community. I’ve written three books based on the lore of the land and Brythonic mythology. I occasionally give talks and workshops sharing my knowledge and facilitating connection with the Brythonic gods. I am slowly learning Welsh, am a member of Preston’s Welsh Club, and for the past few years have made sure that Welsh poetry is included in the World Poetry Day event I help organise.

I believe I’m making the necessary effort to learn about the Welsh/Brythonic culture and language. Yet could it be said I’m profiting financially and in terms of status from selling it to other English people? Possibly, but my financial gains from books, talks/workshops,and poetry performances are miniscule in contrast to the amount of time and effort I’ve put into research and creative writing, plus the majority of my work is available for free online to people of all nationalities. And there is really nothing to be gained in terms of status by identifying with a little known path – it’s not like I’m declaring myself Arch High Druid of the Old North or Chief Bard of Gwyn ap Nudd or something.

Conclusion – In the Eyes of the Gods

More fundamentally it’s my personal belief that what we call the awen and the deities associated with it are much older and deeper than human concepts and distinctions. When Gwyn appeared in my life seven years ago I was completely befuddled by the question of why a wild Welsh god would want anything to do with a suburban English poet. It’s taken me that long to unravel his connections with the Old North and role as a psychopomp guiding the dead and the living back to Annwn and presiding over the mysteries of the awen as the guardian of the cauldron of Ceridwen.

For me being an awenydd is a religious calling based on my relationship with my patron god. It’s not something I can give up because I’m afraid someone will accuse me of cultural appropriation.

This was proven when I tried taking down the term ‘awenydd’ from my blog and the Annuvian Awen symbol I’d been gifted. It hurt. Both are essential to my relationship with my god and to my soul.

My personal decision to continue identifying as an awenydd is based on this feeling rather than logical and political arguments, which always break down into meaninglessness in the eyes of the gods.


*With thanks to discussion and feedback from Greg Hill, who is a paradigmatic example of an awenydd who honours and serves the Brythonic gods and is engaged in modern Welsh culture, having learnt Early Welsh and provided translations of many Welsh texts into English as part of his vocation.

7 thoughts on “The Awenydd Identity and Cultural Appropriation

  1. Nimue Brown says:

    I think one of the key questions with this is ‘who am I harming?’ Clearly, no one. The other thing that strikes me is how often this kind of argument is used in some quarters with a racist agenda, often to suggest that black Americans shouldn’t be exploring anything Celtic, so it’s well worth being suspicious about the scope for that.

  2. ganglerisgrove says:

    i would not give these people who are accusing you of cultural appropriation any thought at all. They’re insignificant. If you’re doing right by your Gods, your tradition, and your elders, then that is all that matters. I’ve followed your blog for quite a while now, and I have seen how devoted you are to your Deities. Don’t waste ink or thought on people who would question that.

  3. Greg Hill says:

    Cultural appropriation is a much more complex issue than those who glibly use the term often appreciate. It is always a good idea to be sensitive to minority cultures when adopting terms with a specific use in those cultures and you display such sensitivity in your concern about this. But your sincerity of purpose and positive engagement with the cultural ethos from which the term ‘awenydd’ comes clearly absolves you from any serious allegation of misappropriation of the term.

  4. Faemon says:

    Thank you for including the example of the high schooler that wore a cheongsam. When Asians living in Asia voiced any lack of offense, the reaction from already-outraged children of the diaspora and their allies were generally that “Asian-born Asians are so brainwashed and thoroughly colonized that they’d ingratiate themselves to colonial powers rather than stand in solidarity with People Who Look Like Them And Are Oppressed For It”.

    First off, I took voicing of “some white kid wearing a cheongsam isn’t that bad” to be an invitation to these clearly upset diaspora children, into a context where a culture isn’t so fragile that it can be sullied by something like that. It was invitation to be somewhere supportive, not dismissal. Manchu fashion might have its detractors, but it was an invitation.

    It also personally upset me to find another case of Asian-born Asians being spoken over, again, by first-world brats that don’t know or care about the impact and reach of their stereotyping.

    On another blogging platform, a photo of a celebrity wearing a saree to a red carpet event was being heavily criticized. One blogger who actually lived in India pointed out the same thing, that it’s acceptable formal attire regardless of race or religious affiliation, and added their opinion that “culture should not be kept within four walls, culture should be shared”. That blogger was harassed off the platform for honesty about their experience and trusting that their perspective would be treated with a baseline decency. The moderator of a group for witches wryly observed that “the only people saying ‘culture should be shared’ are white”—obviously untrue, and I didn’t appreciate the “cover up” of the collective abuse of a person of color, in defense of dehumanizingly simplistic social “laws” that I never voted for.

    I used to very much appreciate the phrase “cultural appropriation” to validate the mild revulsion I felt towards disrespect and inaccuracy that a would-be cultural practitioner has if they’re foreign, wealthy, or plainly unpleasant (entitled, arrogant, rude, or wilfully ignorant.) Now it’s a buzzword more often than not, and most liberally thrown about by people every bit as unpleasant as the ones that term was to keep in check or describe in the first place.

    What I find these so-called “social justice” conversations have become, are patterns of regularly using and harming the same marginalized people its adherents claim to support and protect. To paraphrase Angie Speaks on YouTube, in analyzing how social justice devolved into a clout game: It’s become more about creating immutable categories of victimhood that can be milked for social capital without actually challenging the systems that perpetuate victimhood in the first place. I would add that this generates motive towards making shallow and disingenuous accusations, offering bad faith criticism—because it’s informed by fashionable rhetoric, it’s not voicing any wounding at the instinct depth and it’s certainly not sorting out by Shadow Work if what seems to be bothering most “call out and cancel” adherents is truly what is bothering them. The whole cesspool of discourse is far too performative by now, in my opinion, to be considered legitimate with any frequency.

    • locksley2010 says:

      Thank you for this, I am sorry to read of people from the cultures and countries being discussed being silenced by others who claim to speak for them on such forums.

  5. angharadlois says:

    I thought I must have commented on this before, but somehow I didn’t!

    This is a very thoughtful response to potential criticism, and I really appreciate the thoughtfulness. One thing I have noticed, through my years in the pagan community, is a tendency towards defensiveness – to treat potential criticisms as though they are actual attacks. It is so important to be able to consider criticisms thoughtfully, as you have here, without doubling down.

    Anyone who has spent significant time sitting with their ancestors will know how we are all mixed up together, and there is little value in parcelling out cultures into those you are “allowed” to explore and those you are not. What really matters is the nature of the exploration, and that it is done respectfully.

    I slightly disagree with Nimue’s analysis that appropriation of Welsh language is harming no-one, because Welsh is a real minority language with its own struggles for survival, and anyone drawing on modern Welsh for their practice should do their best to be on the right side of those struggles.

    The crux of the matter is, if we don’t respect the sources of our inspiration, the inspiration we draw
    from them won’t ultimately do us any good. Your work is an excellent example of drawing respectfully from an ancient source to create something good.

  6. Jason says:

    I’m not a follower of this blog but this strikes me as important. If we consider the historical records of nations falling, rising and blending
    we notice culture is a living breathing creature
    capable of change but also like other living things requires respect and sensitivity. To know the origin’s is to know the truth and to disregard that is to disregard the very self. I was born and raised in a white Baptist christian family, have studied many topics, consider myself a scholar of sorts and have my own spiritual practice in spite of my ignorant family. I sought out to know my family roots as they were obscured overtime disconnecting us from any origins and extended family for that matter in a divided world. At a time I would have just said something completely ignorant such as I’m a shaman or something to that effect but havint 2% Eastern European/Russian dna does not give me that right off the bat. Traumatized or not. If anything I personally no longer have a label for my spiritual path though I do recognize my skills and their origins. Your earnest desire and ability to recognize this is a beautiful thing and only serves to empower your faith and spiritual identity as It comes from a place of respect, knowledge and understanding of it’s origins. They do say knowledge is powerful and you are powerful.

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